Do you know what a reptile is? Most people would say that they do, but when you ask them to describe one, they might have a little bit of difficulty. This is because there are many different types of reptiles, from snakes and lizards to crocodiles and turtles. Reptiles are air-breathing vertebrates covered in special skin made up of scales, bony plates, or a combination of both. They can be found on every continent except Antarctica, and there are more than 10,000 different species!
Reptiles are often thought of as cold-blooded creatures, but this is not always the case. Some reptiles, like the leatherback sea turtle, can maintain a body temperature that is higher than the surrounding environment. Reptiles are also ectothermic, meaning that they rely on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature. This is why you often see reptiles basking in the sun – they are trying to warm up!
There is a lot to learn about reptile anatomy, physiology, and ecology. But don’t worry, we will cover all of that and more in this introductory guide to the fascinating world of reptiles! So sit back, relax, and get ready to learn about these amazing creatures.
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What are reptiles?
Reptiles are air-breathing vertebrates with scaly, bony plates, or a combination of both on their bodies.
Crocodiles, snakes, lizards, turtles, and tortoises are all examples of reptiles. They all have a natural propensity to shed their external layer of skin on a regular basis. Their metabolic rates are determined by the temperature of their habitats.
Reptiles, unlike birds and mammals, do not maintain a constant internal body temperature. They can’t keep warm on a chilly day or cool down on a hot one without fur or feathers for insulation, and they can’t sweat because to lack of sweating glands or the ability to pant.
They actually go into the sun or into the shade depending on their situation. They become dormant during the cooler months of the year. Reptiles are cold-blooded because to their sluggish metabolism and heat-seeking behavior.
Reptiles require particular temperatures for reproduction to occur. Only boas and pythons give live births.
The females of several species build simple nests and deposit their eggs. The young emerge after days or months.
It’s crucial to maintain an ideal temperature in the soil throughout this period: It influences the number of male or female hatchlings. Within hours after birth, youngsters can glide, stroll, and swim.
The fossil record includes the first discoveries of reptiles, who appeared about 315 million years ago and were the primary animals for much of the Mesozoic period, which lasted until the demise of the dinosaurs.
Definition of reptiles
In this section we will try to give a more scientific definition of reptiles, what is the meaning of reptiles?
Reptiles, as most people understand them, are the animals in the class Reptilia, a polyphyletic group that includes all sauropsid amniotes except birds (avians). Turtles, crocodilians, squamates (lizards and snakes), and rhynchocephalians are all reptiles.
The Reptile Database lists about the class includes about 11,700 species. In the traditional Linnaean classification system, birds are considered a separate class to reptiles.
However, crocodilians are more closely related to birds than they are to other living reptiles, and so modern cladistic classification systems include birds within Reptilia, redefining the term as a clade.
Other cladistic definitions abandon the term reptile altogether in favor of the clade Sauropsida, which refers to all animals more closely related to modern reptiles than to mammals.
The study of the traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology.
Origin of reptiles
The earliest known proto-reptiles originated around 312 million years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from advanced reptiliomorph tetrapods which became increasingly adapted to life on dry land.
The earliest known eureptile (“true reptile”) was Hylonomus, a small and superficially lizard-like animal. Genetic and fossil data argues that the two largest lineages of reptiles, Archosauromorpha (crocodilians, birds, and kin) and Lepidosauromorpha (lizards, and kin), diverged near the end of the Permian period.
In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events.
In particular, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, and all non-avian dinosaurs alongside many species of crocodyliforms, and squamates (e.g., mosasaurs).
Modern non-bird reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica.
Reptiles are oviparous, mostly
Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates, creatures that either have four limbs or, like snakes, are descended from four-limbed ancestors.
Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Most reptiles are oviparous, although several species of squamates are viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades – the fetus develops within the mother, using a (non-mammalian) placenta rather than contained in an eggshell.
As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings.
Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, which can grow up to 17 mm (0.7 in) to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, which can reach over 6 m (19.7 ft) in length and weigh over 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Reptiles are a varied group of animals that have been around for millions of years. They include creatures like lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodiles. Most reptile species are oviparous, meaning they lay eggs, but some squamates are viviparous, giving birth to live young. Reptiles can be found on every continent except Antarctica. They range in size from tiny geckos to massive saltwater crocodiles.
Whether you’re interested in learning more about reptile anatomy, ecology, or evolution, there are plenty of resources out there to help you get started. So what are you waiting for? Start exploring the fascinating world of reptiles today!
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Scientific information about Reptiles (the Reptilia class)
Welcome to the captivating world of Reptilia, a fascinating group of tetrapods that captivate the imagination with their unique characteristics. These captivating creatures are known for their ectothermic (‘cold-blooded’) metabolism and amniotic development. Within the realm of living reptiles, we encounter four distinctive orders: Testudines, which comprise the graceful turtles; Crocodilia, the formidable crocodilians; Squamata, encompassing the diverse array of lizards and snakes; and Rhynchocephalia, home to the enigmatic tuatara. As of May 2023, the Reptile Database lists approximately 12,000 living reptile species. The comprehensive study of these traditional reptile orders, often in conjunction with modern amphibians, finds its niche in the field of herpetology.
Reptile taxonomic debates
Reptiles have found themselves at the heart of various taxonomic debates. In the traditional Linnaean taxonomy, these creatures find their place within the class Reptilia, aligning with popular perception. However, in the context of modern cladistic taxonomy, this group is considered paraphyletic. Genetic and paleontological insights have illuminated the fact that birds are the closest living relatives to crocodilians, thus positioning them within the reptile family from an evolutionary standpoint. This has led to the recalibration of Reptilia as a clade, a monophyletic group, that now includes birds. The exact parameters of this clade’s definition may vary among different scholars. Another avenue of consideration is the clade Sauropsida, which typically encompasses all amniotes more closely related to contemporary reptiles than mammals.
Brief history of Reptiles
Embarking on a journey through time, we discover the origins of proto-reptiles some 312 million years ago during the Carboniferous era. Emerging from advanced reptiliomorph tetrapods, these creatures underwent a transformative adaptation to terrestrial life. The first recognized eureptile, the diminutive and lizard-like Hylonomus, marked a pivotal moment in the evolutionary timeline.
Genetic and fossil evidence suggests that the two primary branches of reptiles, Archosauromorpha (crocodilians, birds, and their relatives) and Lepidosauromorpha (lizards and their kin), diverged toward the conclusion of the Permian period. Alongside the extant reptiles, a rich tapestry of now-extinct groups once flourished, only to vanish due to cataclysmic mass extinctions.
Notably, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, and all non-avian dinosaurs, in addition to numerous species of crocodyliforms and squamates, such as the illustrious mosasaurs. Present-day non-avian reptiles have successfully colonized every continent except the frosty expanse of Antarctica.
Reptiles, as tetrapod vertebrates, embody creatures that either possess four limbs or, like the serpents, trace their ancestry back to quadrupedal forebears. Unlike amphibians, reptiles circumvent an aquatic larval phase.
The majority of reptiles are oviparous, a strategy where they lay eggs; however, certain species of squamates exhibit viviparous tendencies, akin to certain extinct aquatic lineages. Within viviparous species, the developing fetus finds nourishment within the maternal body through non-mammalian placental structures, obviating the need for eggshells.
Rooted as amniotes, reptiles encase their eggs in protective and transportive membranes, adapting these structures for terrestrial reproduction. Among viviparous species, some showcase maternal care and even extend initial support to their hatchlings.
The gamut of extant reptiles ranges from the diminutive gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, barely stretching to 17 mm, to the awe-inspiring saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, boasting lengths of over 6 m and weights surpassing 1,000 kg.